module Sequel::Model::InstanceMethods

  1. lib/sequel/model/base.rb

Sequel::Model instance methods that implement basic model functionality.

  • All of the model before/after/around hooks are implemented as instance methods that are called by Sequel when the appropriate action occurs. For example, when destroying a model object, Sequel will call around_destroy, which will call before_destroy, do the destroy, and then call after_destroy.

  • The following instance_methods all call the class method of the same name: columns, db, primary_key, db_schema.

  • The following accessor methods are defined via metaprogramming: raise_on_save_failure, raise_on_typecast_failure, require_modification, strict_param_setting, typecast_empty_string_to_nil, typecast_on_assignment, and use_transactions. The setter methods will change the setting for the instance, and the getter methods will check for an instance setting, then try the class setting if no instance setting has been set.

Public Instance Aliases

pk_equal? -> ===

If the receiver has a primary key value, returns true if the objects have the same class and primary key value. If the receiver's primary key value is nil or is an array containing nil, returns false.

Artist[1].pk_equal?(Artist[1]) # => true # => false
Artist[1].set(:name=>'Bob').pk_equal?(Artist[1]) # => true


to_hash [R]

The hash of attribute values. Keys are symbols with the names of the underlying database columns. The returned hash is a reference to the receiver's values hash, and modifying it will also modify the receiver's values. 'Bob').values # => {:name=>'Bob'}
Artist[1].values # => {:id=>1, :name=>'Jim', ...}
values [R]

The hash of attribute values. Keys are symbols with the names of the underlying database columns. The returned hash is a reference to the receiver's values hash, and modifying it will also modify the receiver's values. 'Bob').values # => {:name=>'Bob'}
Artist[1].values # => {:id=>1, :name=>'Jim', ...}

Public Class methods

new (values = OPTS)

Creates new instance and passes the given values to set. If a block is given, yield the instance to the block.



should be a hash to pass to set. 'Bob') do |a| = 'Bob'
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1067 def initialize(values = OPTS)
1068   @values = {}
1069   @new = true
1070   @modified = true
1071   initialize_set(values)
1072   _changed_columns.clear
1073   yield self if block_given?
1074 end

Public Instance methods

== (obj)

Alias of eql?

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1104 def ==(obj)
1105   eql?(obj)
1106 end
=== (obj)

Case equality. By default, checks equality of the primary key value, see pk_equal?.

Artist[1] === Artist[1] # => true === # => false
Artist[1].set(:name=>'Bob') === Artist[1] # => true
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1114 def ===(obj)
1115   case pkv = pk
1116   when nil
1117     return false
1118   when Array
1119     return false if pk.any?(&:nil?)
1120   end
1122   (obj.class == model) && ( == pkv)
1123 end
[] (column)

Returns value of the column's attribute.

Artist[1][:id] #=> 1
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1079 def [](column)
1080   @values[column]
1081 end
[]= (column, value)

Sets the value for the given column. If typecasting is enabled for this object, typecast the value based on the column's type. If this is a new record or the typecasted value isn't the same as the current value for the column, mark the column as changed.

a =
a[:name] = 'Bob'
a.values #=> {:name=>'Bob'}
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1091 def []=(column, value)
1092   # If it is new, it doesn't have a value yet, so we should
1093   # definitely set the new value.
1094   # If the column isn't in @values, we can't assume it is
1095   # NULL in the database, so assume it has changed.
1096   v = typecast_value(column, value)
1097   vals = @values
1098   if new? || !vals.include?(column) || v != (c = vals[column]) || v.class != c.class
1099     change_column_value(column, v)
1100   end
1101 end
autoincrementing_primary_key ()

The autoincrementing primary key for this model object. Should be overridden if you have a composite primary key with one part of it being autoincrementing.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1146 def autoincrementing_primary_key
1147   primary_key
1148 end
cancel_action (msg=nil)

Cancel the current action. Should be called in before hooks to halt the processing of the action. If a msg argument is given and the model instance is configured to raise exceptions on failure, sets the message to use for the raised HookFailed exception.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1154 def cancel_action(msg=nil)
1155   raise_hook_failure(msg)
1156 end
changed_columns ()

The columns that have been updated. This isn't completely accurate, as it could contain columns whose values have not changed.

a = Artist[1]
a.changed_columns # => [] = 'Bob'
a.changed_columns # => [:name]
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1165 def changed_columns
1166   _changed_columns
1167 end
delete ()

Deletes and returns self. Does not run destroy hooks. Look into using destroy instead.

Artist[1].delete # DELETE FROM artists WHERE (id = 1)
# => #<Artist {:id=>1, ...}>
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1174 def delete
1175   raise Sequel::Error, "can't delete frozen object" if frozen?
1176   _delete
1177   self
1178 end
destroy (opts = OPTS)

Like delete but runs hooks before and after delete. Uses a transaction if use_transactions is true or if the :transaction option is given and true.

Artist[1].destroy # BEGIN; DELETE FROM artists WHERE (id = 1); COMMIT;
# => #<Artist {:id=>1, ...}>
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1186 def destroy(opts = OPTS)
1187   raise Sequel::Error, "can't destroy frozen object" if frozen?
1188   checked_save_failure(opts){checked_transaction(opts){_destroy(opts)}}
1189 end
each (&block)

Iterates through all of the current values using each.

Album[1].each{|k, v| puts "#{k} => #{v}"}
# id => 1
# name => 'Bob'
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1196 def each(&block)
1197   @values.each(&block)
1198 end
eql? (obj)

Compares model instances by values.

Artist[1] == Artist[1] # => true == # => true
Artist[1].set(:name=>'Bob') == Artist[1] # => false
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1205 def eql?(obj)
1206   (obj.class == model) && (obj.values == @values)
1207 end
errors ()

Returns the validation errors associated with this object. See Errors.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1211 def errors
1212   @errors ||=
1213 end
exists? ()

Returns true when current instance exists, false otherwise. Generally an object that isn't new will exist unless it has been deleted. Uses a database query to check for existence, unless the model object is new, in which case this is always false.

Artist[1].exists? # SELECT 1 FROM artists WHERE (id = 1)
# => true
# => false
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1225 def exists?
1226   new? ? false : !this.get(, :one)).nil?
1227 end
extend (mod)

Ignore the model's setter method cache when this instances extends a module, as the module may contain setter methods.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1231 def extend(mod)
1232   @singleton_setter_added = true
1233   super
1234 end
freeze ()

Freeze the object in such a way that it is still usable but not modifiable. Once an object is frozen, you cannot modify it's values, changed_columns, errors, or dataset.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1239 def freeze
1240   values.freeze
1241   _changed_columns.freeze
1242   unless errors.frozen?
1243     validate
1244     errors.freeze
1245   end
1246   this if !new? && model.primary_key
1247   super
1248 end
hash ()

Value that should be unique for objects with the same class and pk (if pk is not nil), or the same class and values (if pk is nil).

Artist[1].hash == Artist[1].hash # true
Artist[1].set(name: 'Bob').hash == Artist[1].hash # true == # true 'Bob').hash == # false
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1257 def hash
1258   case primary_key
1259   when Array
1260     [model, !pk.all? ? @values : pk].hash
1261   when Symbol
1262     [model, pk.nil? ? @values : pk].hash
1263   else
1264     [model, @values].hash
1265   end
1266 end
id ()

Returns value for the :id attribute, even if the primary key is not id. To get the primary key value, use pk.

Artist[1].id # => 1
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1272 def id
1273   @values[:id]
1274 end
inspect ()

Returns a string representation of the model instance including the class name and values.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1278 def inspect
1279   "#<#{} @values=#{inspect_values}>"
1280 end
keys ()

Returns the keys in values. May not include all column names. # => [] 'Bob').keys # => [:name]
Artist[1].keys # => [:id, :name]
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1287 def keys
1288   @values.keys
1289 end
lock! (style=:update)

Refresh this record using for_update (by default, or the specified style when given) unless this is a new record. Returns self. This can be used to make sure no other process is updating the record at the same time.

If style is a string, it will be used directly. You should never pass a string to this method that is derived from user input, as that can lead to SQL injection.

A symbol may be used for database independent locking behavior, but all supported symbols have separate methods (e.g. for_update).

a = Artist[1]
Artist.db.transaction do

a = Artist[2]
Artist.db.transaction do
  a.lock!('FOR NO KEY UPDATE')
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1314 def lock!(style=:update)
1315   _refresh(this.lock_style(style)) unless new?
1316   self
1317 end
marshallable! ()

Remove elements of the model object that make marshalling fail. Returns self.

a = Artist[1]
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1324 def marshallable!
1325   @this = nil
1326   self
1327 end
modified! (column=nil)

Explicitly mark the object as modified, so save_changes/update will run callbacks even if no columns have changed.

a = Artist[1]
a.save_changes # No callbacks run, as no changes
a.save_changes # Callbacks run, even though no changes made

If a column is given, specifically marked that column as modified, so that save_changes/update will include that column in the update. This should be used if you plan on mutating the column value instead of assigning a new column value:

a.modified!(:name)!(/[aeou]/, 'i')
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1344 def modified!(column=nil)
1345   _add_changed_column(column) if column
1346   @modified = true
1347 end
modified? (column=nil)

Whether this object has been modified since last saved, used by save_changes to determine whether changes should be saved. New values are always considered modified.

a = Artist[1]
a.modified? # => false
a.set(name: 'Jim')
a.modified? # => true

If a column is given, specifically check if the given column has been modified:

a.modified?(:num_albums) # => false
a.num_albums = 10
a.modified?(:num_albums) # => true
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1364 def modified?(column=nil)
1365   if column
1366     changed_columns.include?(column)
1367   else
1368     @modified || !changed_columns.empty?
1369   end
1370 end
new? ()

Returns true if the current instance represents a new record. # => true
Artist[1].new? # => false
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1376 def new?
1377   defined?(@new) ? @new : (@new = false)
1378 end
pk ()

Returns the primary key value identifying the model instance. Raises an Error if this model does not have a primary key. If the model has a composite primary key, returns an array of values.

Artist[1].pk # => 1
Artist[[1, 2]].pk # => [1, 2]
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1386 def pk
1387   raise(Error, "No primary key is associated with this model") unless key = primary_key
1388   if key.is_a?(Array)
1389     vals = @values
1390{|k| vals[k]}
1391   else
1392     @values[key]
1393   end
1394 end
pk_hash ()

Returns a hash mapping the receivers primary key column(s) to their values.

Artist[1].pk_hash # => {:id=>1}
Artist[[1, 2]].pk_hash # => {:id1=>1, :id2=>2}
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1400 def pk_hash
1401   model.primary_key_hash(pk)
1402 end
qualified_pk_hash (qualifier=model.table_name)

Returns a hash mapping the receivers qualified primary key column(s) to their values.

# => {Sequel[:artists][:id]=>1}
Artist[[1, 2]].qualified_pk_hash
# => {Sequel[:artists][:id1]=>1, Sequel[:artists][:id2]=>2}
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1410 def qualified_pk_hash(qualifier=model.table_name)
1411   model.qualified_primary_key_hash(pk, qualifier)
1412 end
refresh ()

Reloads attributes from database and returns self. Also clears all changed_columns information. Raises an Error if the record no longer exists in the database.

a = Artist[1] = 'Jim'
a.refresh # => 'Bob'
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1422 def refresh
1423   raise Sequel::Error, "can't refresh frozen object" if frozen?
1424   _refresh(this)
1425   self
1426 end
reload ()

Alias of refresh, but not aliased directly to make overriding in a plugin easier.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1429 def reload
1430   refresh
1431 end
save (opts=OPTS)

Creates or updates the record, after making sure the record is valid and before hooks execute successfully. Fails if:

  • the record is not valid, or

  • before_save calls cancel_action, or

  • the record is new and before_create calls cancel_action, or

  • the record is not new and before_update calls cancel_action.

If save fails and either raise_on_save_failure or the :raise_on_failure option is true, it raises ValidationFailed or HookFailed. Otherwise it returns nil.

If it succeeds, it returns self.

Takes the following options:


save all changed columns, instead of all columns or the columns given


array of specific columns that should be saved.


set to true or false to override the current raise_on_save_failure setting


set the server/shard on the object before saving, and use that server/shard in any transaction.


set to true or false to override the current use_transactions setting


set to false to skip validation

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1458 def save(opts=OPTS)
1459   raise Sequel::Error, "can't save frozen object" if frozen?
1460   set_server(opts[:server]) if opts[:server] 
1461   unless _save_valid?(opts)
1462     raise(validation_failed_error) if raise_on_failure?(opts)
1463     return
1464   end
1465   checked_save_failure(opts){checked_transaction(opts){_save(opts)}}
1466 end
save_changes (opts=OPTS)

Saves only changed columns if the object has been modified. If the object has not been modified, returns nil. If unable to save, returns false unless raise_on_save_failure is true.

a = Artist[1]
a.save_changes # => nil = 'Jim'
a.save_changes # UPDATE artists SET name = 'Bob' WHERE (id = 1)
# => #<Artist {:id=>1, :name=>'Jim', ...}
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1477 def save_changes(opts=OPTS)
1478   save(Hash[opts].merge!(:changed=>true)) || false if modified? 
1479 end
set (hash)

Updates the instance with the supplied values with support for virtual attributes, raising an exception if a value is used that doesn't have a setter method (or ignoring it if strict_param_setting = false). Does not save the record.

artist.set(name: 'Jim') # => 'Jim'
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1488 def set(hash)
1489   set_restricted(hash, :default)
1490 end
set_fields (hash, fields, opts=nil)

For each of the fields in the given array fields, call the setter method with the value of that hash entry for the field. Returns self.

You can provide an options hash, with the following options currently respected:


Can be set to :skip to skip missing entries or :raise to raise an Error for missing entries. The default behavior is not to check for missing entries, in which case the default value is used. To be friendly with most web frameworks, the missing check will also check for the string version of the argument in the hash if given a symbol.


artist.set_fields({name: 'Jim'}, [:name]) # => 'Jim'

artist.set_fields({hometown: 'LA'}, [:name]) # => nil
artist.hometown # => 'Sac' # => 'Jim'
artist.set_fields({}, [:name], missing: :skip) # => 'Jim' # => 'Jim'
artist.set_fields({}, [:name], missing: :raise)
# Sequel::Error raised
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1518 def set_fields(hash, fields, opts=nil)
1519   opts = if opts
1520     model.default_set_fields_options.merge(opts)
1521   else
1522     model.default_set_fields_options
1523   end
1525   case missing = opts[:missing]
1526   when :skip, :raise
1527     do_raise = true if missing == :raise
1528     fields.each do |f|
1529       if hash.has_key?(f) 
1530         set_column_value("#{f}=", hash[f])
1531       elsif f.is_a?(Symbol) && hash.has_key?(sf = f.to_s)
1532         set_column_value("#{sf}=", hash[sf])
1533       elsif do_raise
1534         raise(Sequel::Error, "missing field in hash: #{f.inspect} not in #{hash.inspect}")
1535       end
1536     end
1537   else
1538     fields.each{|f| set_column_value("#{f}=", hash[f])}
1539   end
1540   self
1541 end
set_server (s)

Set the shard that this object is tied to. Returns self.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1544 def set_server(s)
1545   @server = s
1546   @this = @this.server(s) if @this
1547   self
1548 end
singleton_method_added (meth)

Clear the setter_methods cache when a method is added

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1551 def singleton_method_added(meth)
1552   @singleton_setter_added = true if meth.to_s.end_with?('=')
1553   super
1554 end
skip_validation_on_next_save! ()

Skip all validation of the object on the next call to save, including the running of validation hooks. This is designed for and should only be used in cases where valid? is called before saving and the validate: false option cannot be passed to save.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1561 def skip_validation_on_next_save!
1562   @skip_validation_on_next_save = true
1563 end
this ()

Returns (naked) dataset that should return only this instance.

# SELECT * FROM artists WHERE (id = 1) LIMIT 1
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1569 def this
1570   return @this if @this
1571   raise Error, "No dataset for model #{model}" unless ds = model.instance_dataset
1572   @this = use_server(ds.where(pk_hash))
1573 end
update (hash)

Runs set with the passed hash and then runs save_changes.

artist.update(name: 'Jim') # UPDATE artists SET name = 'Jim' WHERE (id = 1)
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1578 def update(hash)
1579   update_restricted(hash, :default)
1580 end
update_fields (hash, fields, opts=nil)

Update the instance's values by calling set_fields with the arguments, then calls save_changes.

artist.update_fields({name: 'Jim'}, [:name])
# UPDATE artists SET name = 'Jim' WHERE (id = 1)

artist.update_fields({hometown: 'LA'}, [:name])
# UPDATE artists SET name = NULL WHERE (id = 1)
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1590 def update_fields(hash, fields, opts=nil)
1591   set_fields(hash, fields, opts)
1592   save_changes
1593 end
valid? (opts = OPTS)

Validates the object and returns true if no errors are reported.

artist.set(name: 'Valid').valid? # => true
artist.set(name: 'Invalid').valid? # => false
artist.errors.full_messages # => ['name cannot be Invalid']
[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1609 def valid?(opts = OPTS)
1610   begin
1611     _valid?(opts)
1612   rescue HookFailed
1613     false
1614   end
1615 end
validate ()

Validates the object. If the object is invalid, errors should be added to the errors attribute. By default, does nothing, as all models are valid by default. See the “Model Validations” guide. for details about validation. Should not be called directly by user code, call valid? instead to check if an object is valid.

[show source]
     # File lib/sequel/model/base.rb
1601 def validate
1602 end