module Sequel::Model::InstanceMethods

  1. lib/sequel/model/base.rb

Sequel::Model instance methods that implement basic model functionality.

  • All of the methods in HOOKS and AROUND_HOOKS create instance methods that are called by Sequel when the appropriate action occurs. For example, when destroying a model object, Sequel will call around_destroy, which will call before_destroy, do the destroy, and then call after_destroy.

  • The following instance_methods all call the class method of the same name: columns, db, primary_key, db_schema.

  • All of the methods in BOOLEAN_SETTINGS create attr_writers allowing you to set values for the attribute. It also creates instance getters returning the value of the setting. If the value has not yet been set, it gets the default value from the class by calling the class method of the same name.

Attributes

to_hash [R]

The hash of attribute values. Keys are symbols with the names of the underlying database columns. The returned hash is a reference to the receiver's values hash, and modifying it will also modify the receiver's values.

Artist.new(:name=>'Bob').values # => {:name=>'Bob'}
Artist[1].values # => {:id=>1, :name=>'Jim', ...}
values [R]

The hash of attribute values. Keys are symbols with the names of the underlying database columns. The returned hash is a reference to the receiver's values hash, and modifying it will also modify the receiver's values.

Artist.new(:name=>'Bob').values # => {:name=>'Bob'}
Artist[1].values # => {:id=>1, :name=>'Jim', ...}

Public Class methods

new (values = {})

Creates new instance and passes the given values to set. If a block is given, yield the instance to the block.

Arguments:

values

should be a hash to pass to set.

Artist.new(:name=>'Bob')

Artist.new do |a|
  a.name = 'Bob'
end
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1352
def initialize(values = {})
  @values = {}
  @new = true
  @modified = true
  initialize_set(values)
  changed_columns.clear 
  yield self if block_given?
end

Public Instance methods

== (obj)

Alias of eql?

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1389
def ==(obj)
  eql?(obj)
end
=== (obj)

If pk is not nil, true only if the objects have the same class and pk. If pk is nil, false.

Artist[1] === Artist[1] # true
Artist.new === Artist.new # false
Artist[1].set(:name=>'Bob') == Artist[1] # => true
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1399
def ===(obj)
  pk.nil? ? false : (obj.class == model) && (obj.pk == pk)
end
[] (column)

Returns value of the column's attribute.

Artist[1][:id] #=> 1
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1364
def [](column)
  @values[column]
end
[]= (column, value)

Sets the value for the given column. If typecasting is enabled for this object, typecast the value based on the column's type. If this is a new record or the typecasted value isn't the same as the current value for the column, mark the column as changed.

a = Artist.new
a[:name] = 'Bob'
a.values #=> {:name=>'Bob'}
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1376
def []=(column, value)
  # If it is new, it doesn't have a value yet, so we should
  # definitely set the new value.
  # If the column isn't in @values, we can't assume it is
  # NULL in the database, so assume it has changed.
  v = typecast_value(column, value)
  vals = @values
  if new? || !vals.include?(column) || v != (c = vals[column]) || v.class != c.class
    change_column_value(column, v)
  end
end
autoincrementing_primary_key ()

The autoincrementing primary key for this model object. Should be overridden if you have a composite primary key with one part of it being autoincrementing.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1414
def autoincrementing_primary_key
  primary_key
end
cancel_action (msg=nil)

Cancel the current action. Should be called in before hooks to halt the processing of the action. If a msg argument is given and the model instance is configured to raise exceptions on failure, sets the message to use for the raised HookFailed exception.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1422
def cancel_action(msg=nil)
  raise_hook_failure(msg)
end
changed_columns ()

The columns that have been updated. This isn't completely accurate, as it could contain columns whose values have not changed.

a = Artist[1]
a.changed_columns # => []
a.name = 'Bob'
a.changed_columns # => [:name]
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1433
def changed_columns
  @changed_columns ||= []
end
delete ()

Deletes and returns self. Does not run destroy hooks. Look into using destroy instead.

Artist[1].delete # DELETE FROM artists WHERE (id = 1)
# => #<Artist {:id=>1, ...}>
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1442
def delete
  raise Sequel::Error, "can't delete frozen object" if frozen?
  _delete
  self
end
destroy (opts = OPTS)

Like delete but runs hooks before and after delete. If before_destroy returns false, returns false without deleting the object from the database. Otherwise, deletes the item from the database and returns self. Uses a transaction if use_transactions is true or if the :transaction option is given and true.

Artist[1].destroy # BEGIN; DELETE FROM artists WHERE (id = 1); COMMIT;
# => #<Artist {:id=>1, ...}>
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1457
def destroy(opts = OPTS)
  raise Sequel::Error, "can't destroy frozen object" if frozen?
  checked_save_failure(opts){checked_transaction(opts){_destroy(opts)}}
end
each (&block)

Iterates through all of the current values using each.

Album[1].each{|k, v| puts "#{k} => #{v}"}
# id => 1
# name => 'Bob'
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1467
def each(&block)
  @values.each(&block)
end
eql? (obj)

Compares model instances by values.

Artist[1] == Artist[1] # => true
Artist.new == Artist.new # => true
Artist[1].set(:name=>'Bob') == Artist[1] # => false
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1476
def eql?(obj)
  (obj.class == model) && (obj.values == @values)
end
errors ()

Returns the validation errors associated with this object. See Errors.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1482
def errors
  @errors ||= errors_class.new
end
exists? ()

Returns true when current instance exists, false otherwise. Generally an object that isn't new will exist unless it has been deleted. Uses a database query to check for existence, unless the model object is new, in which case this is always false.

Artist[1].exists? # SELECT 1 FROM artists WHERE (id = 1)
# => true
Artist.new.exists?
# => false
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1496
def exists?
  new? ? false : !this.get(SQL::AliasedExpression.new(1, :one)).nil?
end
extend (mod)

Ignore the model's setter method cache when this instances extends a module, as the module may contain setter methods.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1502
def extend(mod)
  @singleton_setter_added = true
  super
end
freeze ()

Freeze the object in such a way that it is still usable but not modifiable. Once an object is frozen, you cannot modify it's values, #changed_columns, errors, or dataset.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1510
def freeze
  values.freeze
  changed_columns.freeze
  unless errors.frozen?
    validate
    errors.freeze
  end
  this.freeze if !new? && model.primary_key
  super
end
hash ()

Value that should be unique for objects with the same class and pk (if pk is not nil), or the same class and values (if pk is nil).

Artist[1].hash == Artist[1].hash # true
Artist[1].set(:name=>'Bob').hash == Artist[1].hash # true
Artist.new.hash == Artist.new.hash # true
Artist.new(:name=>'Bob').hash == Artist.new.hash # false
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1528
def hash
  case primary_key
  when Array
    [model, !pk.all? ? @values : pk].hash
  when Symbol
    [model, pk.nil? ? @values : pk].hash
  else
    [model, @values].hash
  end
end
id ()

Returns value for the :id attribute, even if the primary key is not id. To get the primary key value, use pk.

Artist[1].id # => 1
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1543
def id
  @values[:id]
end
inspect ()

Returns a string representation of the model instance including the class name and values.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1549
def inspect
  "#<#{model.name} @values=#{inspect_values}>"
end
keys ()

Returns the keys in values. May not include all column names.

Artist.new.keys # => []
Artist.new(:name=>'Bob').keys # => [:name]
Artist[1].keys # => [:id, :name]
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1558
def keys
  @values.keys
end
lock! (style=:update)

Refresh this record using for_update (by default, or the specified style when given) unless this is a new record. Returns self. This can be used to make sure no other process is updating the record at the same time.

If style is a string, it will be used directly. You should never pass a string to this method that is derived from user input, as that can lead to SQL injection.

A symbol may be used for database independent locking behavior, but all supported symbols have separate methods (e.g. for_update).

 a = Artist[1]
 Artist.db.transaction do
   a.lock!
   a.update(:name=>'A')
 end

a = Artist[2]
Artist.db.transaction do
  a.lock!('FOR NO KEY UPDATE')
  a.update(:name=>'B')
end
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1585
def lock!(style=:update)
  _refresh(this.lock_style(style)) unless new?
  self
end
marshallable! ()

Remove elements of the model object that make marshalling fail. Returns self.

a = Artist[1]
a.marshallable!
Marshal.dump(a)
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1595
def marshallable!
  @this = nil
  self
end
modified! (column=nil)

Explicitly mark the object as modified, so save_changes/update will run callbacks even if no columns have changed.

a = Artist[1]
a.save_changes # No callbacks run, as no changes
a.modified!
a.save_changes # Callbacks run, even though no changes made

If a column is given, specifically marked that column as modified, so that save_changes/update will include that column in the update. This should be used if you plan on mutating the column value instead of assigning a new column value:

a.modified!(:name)
a.name.gsub!(/[aeou]/, 'i')
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1615
def modified!(column=nil)
  if column && !changed_columns.include?(column)
    changed_columns << column
  end
  @modified = true
end
modified? (column=nil)

Whether this object has been modified since last saved, used by #save_changes to determine whether changes should be saved. New values are always considered modified.

a = Artist[1]
a.modified? # => false
a.set(:name=>'Jim')
a.modified? # => true

If a column is given, specifically check if the given column has been modified:

a.modified?(:num_albums) # => false
a.num_albums = 10
a.modified?(:num_albums) # => true
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1637
def modified?(column=nil)
  if column
    changed_columns.include?(column)
  else
    @modified || !changed_columns.empty?
  end
end
new? ()

Returns true if the current instance represents a new record.

Artist.new.new? # => true
Artist[1].new? # => false
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1649
def new?
  defined?(@new) ? @new : (@new = false)
end
pk ()

Returns the primary key value identifying the model instance. Raises an Error if this model does not have a primary key. If the model has a composite primary key, returns an array of values.

Artist[1].pk # => 1
Artist[[1, 2]].pk # => [1, 2]
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1659
def pk
  raise(Error, "No primary key is associated with this model") unless key = primary_key
  if key.is_a?(Array)
    vals = @values
    key.map{|k| vals[k]}
  else
    @values[key]
  end
end
pk_hash ()

Returns a hash mapping the receivers primary key column(s) to their values.

Artist[1].pk_hash # => {:id=>1}
Artist[[1, 2]].pk_hash # => {:id1=>1, :id2=>2}
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1673
def pk_hash
  model.primary_key_hash(pk)
end
qualified_pk_hash (qualifier=model.table_name)

Returns a hash mapping the receivers qualified primary key column(s) to their values.

Artist[1].qualified_pk_hash
# => {Sequel[:artists][:id]=>1}
Artist[[1, 2]].qualified_pk_hash
# => {Sequel[:artists][:id1]=>1, Sequel[:artists][:id2]=>2}
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1683
def qualified_pk_hash(qualifier=model.table_name)
  model.qualified_primary_key_hash(pk, qualifier)
end
refresh ()

Reloads attributes from database and returns self. Also clears all #changed_columns information. Raises an Error if the record no longer exists in the database.

a = Artist[1]
a.name = 'Jim'
a.refresh
a.name # => 'Bob'
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1695
def refresh
  raise Sequel::Error, "can't refresh frozen object" if frozen?
  _refresh(this)
  self
end
reload ()

Alias of refresh, but not aliased directly to make overriding in a plugin easier.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1702
def reload
  refresh
end
save (opts=OPTS)

Creates or updates the record, after making sure the record is valid and before hooks execute successfully. Fails if:

  • the record is not valid, or

  • before_save returns false, or

  • the record is new and before_create returns false, or

  • the record is not new and before_update returns false.

If save fails and either raise_on_save_failure or the :raise_on_failure option is true, it raises ValidationFailed or HookFailed. Otherwise it returns nil.

If it succeeds, it returns self.

You can provide an optional list of columns to update, in which case it only updates those columns, or a options hash.

Takes the following options:

:changed

save all changed columns, instead of all columns or the columns given

:columns

array of specific columns that should be saved.

:raise_on_failure

set to true or false to override the current raise_on_save_failure setting

:server

set the server/shard on the object before saving, and use that server/shard in any transaction.

:transaction

set to true or false to override the current use_transactions setting

:validate

set to false to skip validation

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1734
def save(opts=OPTS)
  raise Sequel::Error, "can't save frozen object" if frozen?
  set_server(opts[:server]) if opts[:server] 
  _before_validation
  if opts[:validate] != false
    unless checked_save_failure(opts){_valid?(true, opts)}
      raise(ValidationFailed.new(self)) if raise_on_failure?(opts)
      return
    end
  end
  checked_save_failure(opts){checked_transaction(opts){_save(opts)}}
end
save_changes (opts=OPTS)

Saves only changed columns if the object has been modified. If the object has not been modified, returns nil. If unable to save, returns false unless raise_on_save_failure is true.

a = Artist[1]
a.save_changes # => nil
a.name = 'Jim'
a.save_changes # UPDATE artists SET name = 'Bob' WHERE (id = 1)
# => #<Artist {:id=>1, :name=>'Jim', ...}
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1756
def save_changes(opts=OPTS)
  save(Hash[opts].merge!(:changed=>true)) || false if modified? 
end
set (hash)

Updates the instance with the supplied values with support for virtual attributes, raising an exception if a value is used that doesn't have a setter method (or ignoring it if strict_param_setting = false). Does not save the record.

artist.set(:name=>'Jim')
artist.name # => 'Jim'
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1767
def set(hash)
  set_restricted(hash, :default)
end
set_all (hash)

Set all values using the entries in the hash, ignoring any setting of allowed_columns in the model.

Artist.set_allowed_columns(:num_albums)
artist.set_all(:name=>'Jim')
artist.name # => 'Jim'
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1777
def set_all(hash)
  set_restricted(hash, :all)
end
set_fields (hash, fields, opts=nil)

For each of the fields in the given array fields, call the setter method with the value of that hash entry for the field. Returns self.

You can provide an options hash, with the following options currently respected:

:missing

Can be set to :skip to skip missing entries or :raise to raise an Error for missing entries. The default behavior is not to check for missing entries, in which case the default value is used. To be friendly with most web frameworks, the missing check will also check for the string version of the argument in the hash if given a symbol.

Examples:

artist.set_fields({:name=>'Jim'}, [:name])
artist.name # => 'Jim'

artist.set_fields({:hometown=>'LA'}, [:name])
artist.name # => nil
artist.hometown # => 'Sac'

artist.name # => 'Jim'
artist.set_fields({}, [:name], :missing=>:skip)
artist.name # => 'Jim'

artist.name # => 'Jim'
artist.set_fields({}, [:name], :missing=>:raise)
# Sequel::Error raised
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1807
def set_fields(hash, fields, opts=nil)
  opts = if opts
    Hash[model.default_set_fields_options].merge!(opts)
  else
    model.default_set_fields_options
  end

  case opts[:missing]
  when :skip
    fields.each do |f|
      if hash.has_key?(f) 
        set_column_value("#{f}=", hash[f])
      elsif f.is_a?(Symbol) && hash.has_key?(sf = f.to_s)
        set_column_value("#{sf}=", hash[sf])
      end
    end
  when :raise
    fields.each do |f|
      if hash.has_key?(f)
        set_column_value("#{f}=", hash[f])
      elsif f.is_a?(Symbol) && hash.has_key?(sf = f.to_s)
        set_column_value("#{sf}=", hash[sf])
      else
        raise(Sequel::Error, "missing field in hash: #{f.inspect} not in #{hash.inspect}")
      end
    end
  else
    fields.each{|f| set_column_value("#{f}=", hash[f])}
  end
  self
end
set_only (hash, *only)

Set the values using the entries in the hash, only if the key is included in only. It may be a better idea to use set_fields instead of this method.

artist.set_only({:name=>'Jim'}, :name)
artist.name # => 'Jim'

artist.set_only({:hometown=>'LA'}, :name) # Raise Error
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1847
def set_only(hash, *only)
  set_restricted(hash, only.flatten)
end
set_server (s)

Set the shard that this object is tied to. Returns self.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1852
def set_server(s)
  @server = s
  @this = @this.server(s) if @this
  self
end
singleton_method_added (meth)

Clear the setter_methods cache when a method is added

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1859
def singleton_method_added(meth)
  @singleton_setter_added = true if meth.to_s =~ SETTER_METHOD_REGEXP
  super
end
this ()

Returns (naked) dataset that should return only this instance.

Artist[1].this
# SELECT * FROM artists WHERE (id = 1) LIMIT 1
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1868
def this
  return @this if @this
  raise Error, "No dataset for model #{model}" unless ds = model.instance_dataset

  cond = if ds.joined_dataset?
    qualified_pk_hash
  else
    pk_hash
  end

  @this = use_server(ds.where(cond))
end
update (hash)

Runs set with the passed hash and then runs save_changes.

artist.update(:name=>'Jim') # UPDATE artists SET name = 'Jim' WHERE (id = 1)
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1884
def update(hash)
  update_restricted(hash, :default)
end
update_all (hash)

Update all values using the entries in the hash, ignoring any setting of allowed_columns in the model.

Artist.set_allowed_columns(:num_albums)
artist.update_all(:name=>'Jim') # UPDATE artists SET name = 'Jim' WHERE (id = 1)
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1893
def update_all(hash)
  update_restricted(hash, :all)
end
update_fields (hash, fields, opts=nil)

Update the instances values by calling set_fields with the arguments, then saves any changes to the record. Returns self.

artist.update_fields({:name=>'Jim'}, [:name])
# UPDATE artists SET name = 'Jim' WHERE (id = 1)

artist.update_fields({:hometown=>'LA'}, [:name])
# UPDATE artists SET name = NULL WHERE (id = 1)
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1905
def update_fields(hash, fields, opts=nil)
  set_fields(hash, fields, opts)
  save_changes
end
update_only (hash, *only)

Update the values using the entries in the hash, only if the key is included in only. It may be a better idea to use update_fields instead of this method.

artist.update_only({:name=>'Jim'}, :name)
# UPDATE artists SET name = 'Jim' WHERE (id = 1)

artist.update_only({:hometown=>'LA'}, :name) # Raise Error
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1918
def update_only(hash, *only)
  update_restricted(hash, only.flatten)
end
valid? (opts = OPTS)

Validates the object and returns true if no errors are reported.

artist(:name=>'Valid').valid? # => true
artist(:name=>'Invalid').valid? # => false
artist.errors.full_messages # => ['name cannot be Invalid']
[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1936
def valid?(opts = OPTS)
  _before_validation
  _valid?(false, opts)
end
validate ()

Validates the object. If the object is invalid, errors should be added to the errors attribute. By default, does nothing, as all models are valid by default. See the “Model Validations” guide. for details about validation. Should not be called directly by user code, call valid? instead to check if an object is valid.

[show source]
# File lib/sequel/model/base.rb, line 1928
def validate
end