Last Update: 2011-07-16 11:31:03 -0700

New Plugins

  • A class_table_inheritance plugin has been added, supporting model inheritance in the database using a table-per-model-class approach. Each table stores only attributes unique to that model or subclass hierarchy.

    For example, with this hierarchy:

       /        \
    Staff     Manager

    the following database schema may be used (table - columns):

    • employees - id, name, kind

    • staff - id, manager_id

    • managers - id, num_staff

    • executives - id, num_managers

    The class_table_inheritance plugin assumes that the main table (e.g. employees) has a primary key field (usually autoincrementing), and all other tables have a foreign key of the same name that points to the same key in their superclass’s table. For example:

    • employees.id - primary key, autoincrementing

    • staff.id - foreign key referencing employees(id)

    • managers.id - foreign key referencing employees(id)

    • executives.id - foreign key referencing managers(id)

    When using the class_table_inheritance plugin, subclasses use joined datasets:

    Employee.dataset.sql  # SELECT * FROM employees
    Manager.dataset.sql   # SELECT * FROM employees
                          # INNER JOIN managers USING (id)
    Executive.dataset.sql # SELECT * FROM employees
                          # INNER JOIN managers USING (id)
                          # INNER JOIN executives USING (id)

    This allows Executive.all to return instances with all attributes loaded. The plugin overrides deleting, inserting, and updating in the model to work with multiple tables, by handling each table individually.

    This plugin allows and encourages the use of a :key option to mark a column holding the class name. This allows methods on the superclass to return instances of specific subclasses.

    a = Employee.all # [<#Staff>, <#Manager>, <#Executive>]

    This plugin requires the lazy_attributes plugin and uses it to handle subclass specific attributes that would not be loaded when calling superclass methods (since those wouldn’t join to the subclass tables). For example:

    a.first.values # {:id=>1, name=>'S', :kind=>'Staff'}
    a.first.manager_id # Loads the manager_id attribute from the
                       # database

    The class_table_inheritance plugin requires JOIN USING and therefore is not supported on H2 or Microsoft SQL Server, which do not support that SQL-92 feature.

  • An associations_dependencies plugin was added for deleting, destroying, or nullifying associated objects when destroying a model object. This just gives an easy way to add the necessary before and after destroy hooks. The following association types support the following dependency actions:

    • :many_to_many - :nullify (removes all related entries in join table)

    • :many_to_one - :delete, :destroy

    • :one_to_many - :delete, :destroy, :nullify (sets foreign key to NULL for all associated objects)

    This plugin works directly with the association datasets and does not use any cached association values. The :delete action will delete all associated objects from the database in a single SQL call. The :destroy action will load each associated object from the database and call the destroy method on it.

    The plugin call takes a hash of association symbol keys and dependency action symbol values. Alternatively, you can specify additional dependencies later using add_association_dependencies:

    Business.plugin :association_dependencies, :address=>:delete
    # or:
    Artist.plugin :association_dependencies
    Artist.add_association_dependencies :albums=>:destroy,
      :reviews=>:delete, :tags=>:nullify
  • A force_encoding plugin was added that forces the encoding of strings used in model instances. When model instances are loaded from the database, all values in the hash that are strings are forced to the given encoding. Whenever you update a model column attribute, the resulting value is forced to a given encoding if the value is a string. There are two ways to specify the encoding. You can either do so in the plugin call itself, or via the forced_encoding class accessor:

    class Album < Sequel::Model
      plugin :force_encoding, 'UTF-8'
      # or
      plugin :force_encoding
      self.forced_encoding = 'UTF-8'

    This plugin only works on ruby 1.9, since strings don’t have encodings in 1.8.

  • A typecast_on_load plugin was added, for fixing bad database typecasting when loading model objects. Most of Sequel’s database adapters don’t have complete control over typecasting, and may return columns that aren’t typecast correctly (with correct being defined as how the model object would typecast the same column values).

    This plugin modifies Model.load to call the setter methods (which typecast by default) for all columns given. You can either specify the columns to typecast on load in the plugin call itself, or afterwards using add_typecast_on_load_columns:

    Album.plugin :typecast_on_load, :release_date, :record_date
    # or:
    Album.plugin :typecast_on_load
    Album.add_typecast_on_load_columns :release_date, :record_date

    If the database returns release_date and record_date columns as strings instead of dates, this will ensure that if you access those columns through the model object, you’ll get Date objects instead of strings.

  • A touch plugin was added, which adds Model#touch for updating an instance’s timestamp, as well as touching associations when an instance is updated or destroyed.

    The Model#touch instance method saves the object with a modified timestamp. By default, it uses the :updated_at column, but you can set which column to use. It also supports touching of associations, so that when the current model object is updated or destroyed, the associated rows in the database can have their modified timestamp updated to the current timestamp. Example:

    class Album < Sequel::Model
      plugin :touch, :column=>:modified_on, :associations=>:artist
  • A subclasses plugin was added, for recording all of a models subclasses and descendent classes. Direct subclasses are available via the subclasses method, and all descendent classes are available via the descendents method:

    c = Class.new(Sequel::Model)
    c.plugin :subclasses
    sc1 = Class.new(c)
    sc2 = Class.new(c)
    ssc1 = Class.new(sc1)
    c.subclasses    # [sc1, sc2]
    sc1.subclasses  # [ssc1]
    sc2.subclasses  # []
    ssc1.subclasses # []
    c.descendents   # [sc1, ssc1, sc2]

    The main use case for this is if you want to modify all models after the model subclasses have been created. Since mutable options are copied when subclassing, modifying parent classes does not affect current subclasses, only future ones. The subclasses plugin allows you get all subclasses so that you can easily modify them. The plugin only records subclasses created after the plugin call, though.

  • An active_model plugin was added, giving Sequel::Model an ActiveModel complaint API, in so much as it passes the ActiveModel::Lint tests.

New Extensions

  • A named_timezones extension was added, allowing you to use named timezones such as “America/Los_Angeles” (the default Sequel timezone support only supports UTC or local time). This extension requires TZInfo. It also sets the Sequel.datetime_class to DateTime, so database timestamps will be returned as DateTime instances instead of Time instances. This is because ruby’s Time class doesn’t support timezones other than UTC and local time.

    This plugin allows you to pass either strings or TZInfo::Timezone instance to Sequel.database_timezone=, application_timezone=, and typecast_timezone=. If a string is passed, it is converted to a TZInfo::Timezone using TZInfo::Timezone.get.

    Let’s say you have the database server in New York and the application server in Los Angeles. For historical reasons, data is stored in local New York time, but the application server only services clients in Los Angeles, so you want to use New York time in the database and Los Angeles time in the application. This is easily done via:

    Sequel.database_timezone = 'America/New_York'
    Sequel.application_timezone = 'America/Los_Angeles'

    Then, before timestamps are stored in the database, they are converted to New York time. When timestamps are retrieved from the database, they are converted to Los Angeles time.

  • A thread_local_timezones extension was added. This allows you to set a per-thread timezone that will override the default global timezone while the thread is executing. The main use case is for web applications that execute each request in its own thread, and want to set the timezones based on the request. The most common example is having the database always store time in UTC, but have the application deal with the timezone of the current user. That can be done with:

    Sequel.database_timezone = :utc
    # In each thread:
    Sequel.thread_application_timezone = current_user.timezone

    This extension is designed to work with the named_timezones extension.

  • An sql_expr extension was added that adds .sql_expr methods to all objects, giving them easy access to Sequel’s DSL:

    1.sql_expr < :a     # 1 < a
    false.sql_expr & :a # FALSE AND a
    true.sql_expr | :a  # TRUE OR a
    ~nil.sql_expr       # NOT NULL
    "a".sql_expr + "b"  # 'a' || 'b'

    Proc#sql_expr uses a virtual row:

    proc{[[a, b], [a, c]]}.sql_expr | :x
    # (((a = b) AND (a = c)) OR x)
  • A looser_typecasting extension was added, for using to_f and to_i instead of the more strict Kernel.Float and Kernel.Integer when typecasting floats and integers. To use it, you should extend the database with the Sequel::LooserTypecasting module after loading the extension:

    Sequel.extension :looser_typecasting

    This makes the behavior more like ActiveRecord:

    a = Artist.new(:num_albums=>'a')
    a.num_albums # => 0

Other New Features

  • Associations now support composite keys. All of the :*key options options now accept arrays of symbols instead of plain symbols. Example:

    Artist.primary_key # [:name, :city]
    Album.many_to_one :artist, :key=>[:artist_name, :artist_city]
    Artist.one_to_many :albums, :key=>[:artist_name, :artist_city]

    All association types are supported, including the built-in many_to_many association and the many_through_many plugin. Both methods of eager loading work with composite keys for all association types. Setter and add/remove/remove_all methods also now work with composite keys.

  • Associations now respect a :validate option, which can be set to false to not validate when implicitly saving associated objects.

    There isn’t a lot of implicit saving in Sequel’s association methods, but this gives the user the control over validation when the association methods implicitly save an object.

  • In addition to the regular association methods, the nested_attributes plugin was also updated to respect the :validate_association option. It was also modified to not validate associated objects twice, once when the parent object was validated and again when the associated object was saved. Additionally, if you pass :validate=>false to the save method when saving the parent object, it will not longer attempt to validate associated objects when saving them.

  • Dataset#insert and insert_sql were refactored and now support the following API:

    • No arguments - Treat as a single empty hash argument

    • Single argument:

      • Hash - Use keys as columns and values as values

      • Array - Use as values, without specifying columns

      • Dataset - Use a subselect, without specifying columns

      • LiteralString - Use as the values

    • 2 arguments:

      • Array, Array - Use first array as keys, second as values

      • Array, Dataset - Use a subselect, with the array as columns

      • Array, LiteralString - Use LiteralString as the values, with the array as the columns

    • Anything else: Treat all given values an an array of values

  • Graphing now works with previously joined datasets. The main use case of this is when eagerly loading (via eager_graph) model associations for models backed by joined datasets, such as those created by the class_table_inheritance plugin.

  • Sequel.virtual_row was added allowing you to easily use the VirtualRow support outside of select, order, and filter calls:

    net_benefit = Sequel.virtual_row{revenue > cost}
    good_employee = Sequel.virtual_row{num_commendations > 0}
    fire = ~net_benefit & ~good_employee
    demote = ~net_benefit & good_employee
    promote = net_benefit & good_employee
  • When Sequel wraps exception in its own classes (to provide database independence), it now keeps the wrapped exception available in a wrapped_exception accessor. This allows you to more easily determine the wrapped exception class, without resorting to parsing the exception message.

    rescue Sequel::DatabaseError => e
      case e.wrapped_exception
      when Mysql::Error
      when PGError
  • The MySQL adapter now supports a Dataset#split_multiple_result_sets method that yields arrays of rows (one per result set), instead of rows. This allows you to submit multiple statements at the same time (or call a stored procedure that returns multiple result sets), and know which rows are related to which result sets.

    This violates a lot of Sequel’s internal assumptions and should be used with care. Existing row_procs are modified to work correctly, but graphing will not work on these datasets.

  • The ADO adapter now accepts a :conn_string option and uses that as the full ADO connection string. This can be used to connect to any datasource ADO supports, such as Microsoft Excel.

  • The Microsoft SQL Server shared adapter now supports a Database#server_version method.

  • The Microsoft SQL Server shared adapter now supports updating and deleting from joined datasets.

  • The Microsoft SQL Server shared adapter now supports a Dataset#output method that uses the OUTPUT clause.

  • Model#_save now calls either Model#_insert or Model#_update for inserting/updating the row in the database. This allows for easier overriding when you want to allow creating and updating model objects backed by a joined dataset.

  • Dataset#graph now takes a :from_self_alias option specifying the alias to use for the subselect created if the receiver is a joined but not yet graphed dataset. It defaults to the first source table in the receiver.

Other Improvements

  • Typecasting model attributes is now done before checking existing values, instead of after. Before, the code for the model attribute setters would compare the given value to the existing entry. If it didn’t match, the value was typecasted and then assigned. That led to the following situation:

    a = Album[1]
    a.num_tracks # => 10
    params # => {'num_tracks'=>'10'}
    a.changed_columns # => [:num_tracks]

    The new behavior typecasts the value first, and only sets it and records the column as changed if it doesn’t match the typecasted value.

  • Model#modified? is now always true if the record is new. modified? indicates the instance’s status relative to the database, and since a new object is not yet in the database, and saving the object would add it, the object is considered modified. A consequence of this is that Model#save_changes now always saves if the object is new.

    If you want to check if there were changes to columns since the object was first initialized, you should use !changed_columns.empty?, which was the historical way to handle the situation.

  • The DataObjects (do) adpater now supports DataObjects 0.10.

  • Dataset#select_more and Dataset#order_more no longer affect the receiver. They are supposed to just return a modified copy of the receiver instead of modifying the receiver itself. For a few versions they have been broken in that they modified the receiver in addition to returning a modified copy.

  • Performance was increased for execution of prepared statements with multiple bound variables on MySQL.

  • On MySQL, database errors raised when preparing statements or setting bound variable values are now caught and raised as Sequel::DatabaseErrors.

  • On MySQL, more types of disconnection errors are detected.

  • When altering columns in MySQL, options such as :unsigned, :elements, and :size that are given in the call are now respected.

  • MySQL enum defaults are now handled correctly in the schema dumper.

  • The schema dumper no longer attempts to use unparseable defaults as literals on MySQL, since MySQL does not provide defaults as valid literals.

  • The emulated offset support in the shared Microsoft SQL Server adapter now works better with model classes (or any datasets with row_procs).

  • Microsoft SQL Server now supports using the WITH clause in delete, update, and insert calls.

  • Parsed indexes when connecting to Microsoft SQL Server via JDBC no longer include primary key indexes.

  • Dataset#insert_select now returns nil if disable_insert_returning is used in the shared PostgreSQL adapter. This makes it work as expected with model object creation.

  • Calling Model.set_primary_key with an array of symbols to set a composite primary key is now supported. You can also provide multiple symbol arguments to do the same thing. Before, specifying an array of symbols broke the Model.[] optimization.

  • Literalization of timezones in timestamps now works correctly on Oracle.

  • __FILE__ and __LINE__ are now used everywhere that eval is called with a string, which makes for better backtraces.

  • The native MySQL adapter now correctly handles returning before yielding all result sets. Previously, this caused a commands out of sync error.

  • Table names in common table expressions are now quoted.

  • The Oracle adapter’s Dataset#except now accepts a hash, giving it the same API as the default Dataset#except.

  • When connecting to Microsoft SQL Server via ADO, allow Dataset#insert to take multiple arguments.

  • Fractional timestamps are no longer used on ODBC.

  • Schema parsing now works on MSSQL when the database is set to not quote identifiers.

  • Timezone offsets are no longer used on Microsoft SQL Server, since they only work for the datetimeoffset type.

  • Only 3 fractional digits in timestamps are used in Microsoft SQL Server, since an error is raised if the use the datetime type with more than that.

  • The integration test suite now has guards for expected failures when run on known databases. Expected failures are marked as pending.

Backwards Compatibility

  • Graphing to an previously joined (but not graphed) dataset now causes the receiver to be wrapped in a subselect, so if you graph a dataset to a previously joined dataset, and then filter the dataset referring to tables that were in the joined dataset (other than the first table), the SQL produced will probably no longer be valid. You should either filter the dataset before graphing or use the name of the first source of the joined dataset (which is what the subselected is aliased to) if filtering afterward.

    In certain cases, this change can cause tables to be aliased differently, so if you were graphing previously joined datasets and then filtering using the automatically generated aliases, you might need to modify your code.

  • The DataObjects (do) adpater no longer supports DataObjects 0.9.x.

  • The Dataset#virtual_row_block_call private instance method has been removed.

  • Sequel’s timezone support was significantly refactored, so if you had any custom modifications to the timezone support, they might need to be refactored as well.

  • The SQL generation code was significantly refactored, so if you had any custom modifications in that area, you might need to refactor as well.