dataset_filtering.rdoc

doc/dataset_filtering.rdoc
Last Update: 2017-02-13 14:46:24 -0800

Dataset Filtering

Sequel is very flexible when it comes to filtering records. You can specify your conditions as a custom string, as a string with parameters, as a hash of values to compare against, or as ruby code that Sequel translates into SQL expressions.

Filtering using a custom filter string

If you wish to write your SQL by hand, you can just supply it to the dataset's where method:

items.where('x < 10').sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE x < 10"

In order to prevent SQL injection, you can replace literal values with question marks and supply the values as additional arguments:

items.where('category = ?', 'ruby').sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE category = 'ruby'"

You can also use placeholders with :placeholder and a hash of placeholder values:

items.where('category = :category', :category=>'ruby').sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE category = 'ruby'"

Specifying SQL functions

Sequel also allows you to specify functions by using the Sequel.function method:

items.literal(Sequel.function(:avg, :price)) #=> "avg(price)"

If you are specifying a filter/selection/order, you can use a virtual row block:

items.select{avg(price)}

You can also use the core_extensions extension and the sql_function method:

:avg.sql_function(:price)

Filtering using a hash

If you just need to compare records against values, you can supply a hash:

items.where(:category => 'ruby').sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (category = 'ruby')"

Sequel can check for null values:

items.where(:category => nil).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (category IS NULL)"

Or compare two columns:

items.where{{:x => some_table[:y]}}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (x = some_table.y)"

And also compare against multiple values:

items.where(:category => ['ruby', 'perl']).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (category IN ('ruby', 'perl'))"

Ranges (both inclusive and exclusive) can also be used:

items.where(:price => 100..200).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (price >= 100 AND price <= 200)"

items.where(:price => 100...200).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (price >= 100 AND price < 200)"

Filtering using an array

If you need to select multiple items from a dataset, you can supply an array:

item_array = [1, 38, 47, 99]
items.where(:id => item_array).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (id IN (1, 38, 47, 99))"

Filtering using expressions

You can pass a block to where, which is evaluated in a special context:

items.where{price * 2 < 50}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((price * 2) < 50)

This works for the standard inequality and arithmetic operators:

items.where{price + 100 < 200}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((price + 100) < 200)

items.where{price - 100 > 200}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((price - 100) > 200)

items.where{price * 100 <= 200}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((price * 100) <= 200)

items.where{price / 100 >= 200}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((price / 100) >= 200)

items.where{price ** 2 >= 200}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (power(price, 2) >= 200)

You use the overloaded bitwise and (&) and or (|) operators to combine expressions:

items.where{(price + 100 < 200) & (price * 100 <= 200)}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (((price + 100) < 200) AND ((price * 100) <= 200))

items.where{(price - 100 > 200) | (price / 100 >= 200)}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (((price - 100) > 200) OR ((price / 100) >= 200))

To filter by equality, you use the standard hash, which can be combined with other expressions using Sequel.& and Sequel.|:

items.where{Sequel.&({:category => 'ruby'}, (price + 100 < 200))}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((category = 'ruby') AND ((price + 100) < 200))"

You can also use the =~ operator:

items.where{(category =~ 'ruby') & (price + 100 < 200)}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((category = 'ruby') AND ((price + 100) < 200))"

This works with other hash values, such as arrays and ranges:

items.where{Sequel.|({:category => ['ruby', 'other']}, (price - 100 > 200))}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((category IN ('ruby', 'other')) OR ((price - 100) <= 200))"

items.where{(price =~ (100..200)) & :active}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((price >= 100 AND price <= 200) AND active)"

Negating conditions

You can use the exclude method to exclude whole conditions:

items.exclude(:category => 'ruby').sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (category != 'ruby')"

items.exclude(:active).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE NOT active"

items.exclude{price / 100 >= 200}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((price / 100) < 200)

To exclude only parts of conditions, you can use when in combination with Sequel.~ or the ~ method on Sequel expressions:

items.where{Sequel.&(Sequel.~(:category => 'ruby'), (price + 100 < 200))}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((category != 'ruby') AND ((price + 100) < 200))"

items.where{~(category =~ 'ruby') & (price + 100 < 200)}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((category != 'ruby') AND ((price + 100) < 200))"

On Ruby 1.9+, you can also use the !~ method:

items.where{(category !~ 'ruby') & (price + 100 < 200)}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((category != 'ruby') AND ((price + 100) < 200))"

Comparing against column references

You can also compare against other columns:

items.where{credit > debit}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (credit > debit)

Or against SQL functions:

items.where{price - 100 < max(price)}.sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((price - 100) < max(price))"

String search functions

You can search SQL strings in a case sensitive manner using the Sequel.like method:

items.where(Sequel.like(:name, 'Acme%')).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (name LIKE 'Acme%' ESCAPE '\')"

You can search SQL strings in a case insensitive manner using the Sequel.ilike method:

items.where(Sequel.ilike(:name, 'Acme%')).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (name ILIKE 'Acme%' ESCAPE '\')"

You can specify a Regexp as a like argument, but this will probably only work on PostgreSQL and MySQL:

items.where(Sequel.like(:name, /Acme.*/)).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE (name ~ 'Acme.*')"

Like can also take more than one argument:

items.where(Sequel.like(:name, 'Acme%', /Beta.*/)).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((name LIKE 'Acme%' ESCAPE '\') OR (name ~ 'Beta.*'))"

String concatenation

You can concatenate SQL strings using Sequel.join:

items.where(Sequel.join([:name, :comment]).like('Jo%nice%')).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((name || comment) LIKE 'Jo%nice%' ESCAPE '\')"

Sequel.join also takes a join argument:

items.where(Sequel.join([:name, :comment], ':').like('John:%nice%')).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((name || ':' || comment) LIKE 'John:%nice%' ESCAPE '\')"

Filtering using sub-queries

One of the best features of Sequel is the ability to use datasets as sub-queries. Sub-queries can be very useful for filtering records, and many times provide a simpler alternative to table joins. Sub-queries can be used in all forms of filters:

refs = consumer_refs.where(:logged_in).select(:consumer_id)
consumers.where(:id => refs).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM consumers WHERE (id IN (SELECT consumer_id FROM consumer_refs WHERE logged_in))"

Note that if you are checking for the inclusion of a single column in a subselect, the subselect should only select a single column.

Using OR instead of AND

By default, if you chain calls to where, the conditions get ANDed together. If you want to use an OR for a condition, you can use the or method:

items.where(:name=>'Food').or(:vendor=>1).sql
#=> "SELECT * FROM items WHERE ((name = 'Food') OR (vendor = 1))"